Repossession Credit Scores: What You Need to Know

One of the harsh truths of secured loans is that your asset can be repossessed if you fail to make the payments. In the words of the FTC, “your consumer rights may be limited” if you miss your monthly payments, and when that happens, both your financial situation and your bank balance will take a hit.

On this guide, we’ll look at what can happen when you fall behind on your car payments, and how much damage it can do to your credit score.

What is a Car Repossession?

An auto loan is a loan acquired for the sole purpose of purchasing a car. The lender covers the cost of the car, you get the vehicle you want, and in return you pay a fixed monthly sum until the loan balance is repaid.

If you fail to make to make a payment or you’re late, the lender may assume possession of your car and sell it to offset the losses. At the same time, they will report your missed and late payments to the main credit bureaus, and your credit score will take a hit. What’s more, if the sale is not enough to cover the remainder of the debt, you may be asked to pay the residual balance.

The same process applies to a title loan, whereby your car is used as collateral for a loan but isn’t actually the purpose of the loan.

To avoid repossession, you need to make your car payments on time every month. If you are late or make a partial payment, you may incur penalties and it’s possible that your credit score will suffer as well. If you continue to delay payment, the lender will seek to cover their costs as quickly and painlessly as possible.

How a Repossession Can Impact Your Credit Score

Car repossession can impact your credit history and credit score in several ways. Firstly, all missed and late car payments will be reported to the credit bureaus and will remain on your account for up to 7 years. They can also reduce your credit score. 

Secondly, if your car is repossessed on top of late payments, you could lose up to 100 points from your credit score, significantly reducing your chances of being accepted for a credit card, loan or mortgage in the future. 

And that’s not the end of it. If you have had your car for less than a couple of years, there’s a good chance the sale price will be much less than the loan balance. Car repossession doesn’t wipe the slate clean and could still leave you with a sizable issue. If you have a $10,000 balance and the car is sold for $5,000, you will owe $5,000 on the loan and the lender may also hit you with towing charges.

Don’t assume that the car is worth more than the value of the loan and that everything will be okay. The lender isn’t selling it direct; they won’t get the best price. Repossessed vehicles are sold cheaply, often for much less than their value, and in most cases, a balance remains. 

Lenders may be lenient with this balance as it’s not secured, so their options are limited. However, they can also file a judgment or sell it to a collection agency, at which point your problems increase and your credit score drops even further.

How Does a Repo Take Place?

If you have a substantial credit card debt and miss a payment, your creditor will typically take it easy on you. They can’t legally report the missed payment until at least 30-days have passed and most creditors won’t sell the account to a collection agency until it is at least 180-days overdue.

This leads many borrowers into a false sense of security, believing that an auto loan lender will be just as forgiving. But this is simply not true. Some lenders will repo your car just 90-days after your last payment, others will do it after 60 days. They don’t make as many allowances because they don’t need to—they can simply seize your asset, get most of the money back, and then chase the rest as needed.

Most repossessions happen quickly and with little warning. The lender will contact you beforehand and request that you pay what you owe, but the actual repo process doesn’t work quite like what you may have seen on TV. 

They’re not allowed to break down your door or threaten you; they’re not allowed to use force. And, most of the time, they don’t need to. If they see your car, they will load it onto their truck and disappear. They’re so used to this process that they can typically do it in less than 60-seconds.

It doesn’t matter whether you’re at home or at work—you just lost your ride.

What Can You Do Before a Repo Hits Your Credit Score?

Fortunately, there are ways to avoid the repo process and escape the damage. You just need to act quickly and don’t bury your head in the sand, as many borrowers do.

Request a Deferment

An auto loan lender won’t waste as much time as a creditor, simply because they don’t need to. However, they still understand that they won’t get top dollar for the car and are generally happy to make a few allowances if it means you have more chance of meeting your payments.

If you sense that your financial situation is on the decline, contact your lender and request a deferment. This should be done as soon as possible, preferably before you miss a payment.

A deferment buys you a little extra time, allowing you to take the next month or two off and adding these payments onto the end of the term. The FTC recommends that you get any agreement in writing, just in case they renege on their promise.

Refinance

One of the best ways to avoid car repossession, is to refinance your loan and secure more favorable terms. The balance may increase, and you’ll likely find yourself paying more interest over the long-term, but in the short-term, you’ll have smaller monthly payments to contend with and this makes the loan more manageable.

You will need a good credit score for this to work (although there are some bad credit lenders) but it will allow you to tweak the terms in your favor and potentially improve your credit situation.

Sell the Car Yourself

Desperate times call for desperate measures; if you’re on the brink of facing repossession, you should consider selling the car yourself. You’ll likely get more than your lender would and you can use this to clear the balance. 

Before you sell, calculate how much is left and make sure the sale will cover it. If not, you will need to find the additional funds yourself, preferably without acquiring additional debt. Ask friends or family members if they can help you out.

How Long a Repo Can Affect Your Credit Score

The damage caused by a repossession can remain on your credit score for 7 years, causing some financial difficulty. However, the damage will lessen over time and within three or four years it will be negligible at best.

Derogatory marks cease to have an impact on your credit score a long time before it disappears off your credit report, and it’s the same for late payments and repossessions.

Still, that doesn’t mean you should take things lightly. The lender can make life very difficult for you if you don’t meet your payments every month and don’t work with them to find a solution.

What About Voluntary Repossession?

If you’re missing payments because you’ve lost your job or suffered a major change in your financial circumstances, it may be time to consider voluntary repossession, in which case there are no missed payments and you don’t need to worry about repo men knocking on your door or coming to your workplace.

With voluntary repossession, the borrower contacts the lender, informs them they can no longer afford the payments, and arranges a time and a place to return the car. However, while this is a better option, it can do similar damage to the borrower’s credit score as a voluntary repossession, like a traditional repossession, is still a defaulted loan.

Missed payments aside, the only difference concerns how the repossession shows on the borrower’s credit report. Voluntary repossession will look better to a creditor who manually scans the report, but the majority of lenders run automatic checks and won’t notice a difference.

Summary: Act Quickly

If you have student loan, credit card, and other unsecured debt, a repo could reduce your chances of a successful debt payoff and potentially prevent you from getting a mortgage. But it’s not the end of the world. You can get a deferment, refinance or reinstate the loan, and even if the worst does happen, it may only take a year or so to get back on track after you fix your financial woes.

Repossession Credit Scores: What You Need to Know is a post from Pocket Your Dollars.

Source: pocketyourdollars.com

How Late Can You Be on a Car Payment, Mortgage or Other Bill?

A man sits on a chair, looking concerned.

It’s always frustrating to come across a bill and realize it was due yesterday—or last week. If you’re late on a payment or if you miss it completely, you could end up paying late fees and taking a hit on your credit score. It can be especially difficult if you want to apply for a loan or credit and are about to make a big purchase like a house or a vehicle.

If you’re a reliable customer and have only missed this one payment, it likely shouldn’t be a big problem, and you can probably avoid a late fee. But if you wait too long, it might not be possible.

Either way, we’re going to help answer some of your biggest questions:

  • How late can you be on a car payment before it affects your credit?
  • Is there a late car payment grace period?
  • What about for rent?
  • What happens if you miss a payment completely?
  • Who should you notify?
  • How will it impact your credit score?

Read on to learn how late a credit card or car payment can be before it affects your credit score and what to do if it does.

How Late Can a Credit Card Payment Be?

People often wonder how late a payment has to be before their creditors report it to the credit bureaus. A credit card payment is considered late if it’s received after the cutoff time in your credit card agreement or if the payment submitted is less than the minimum amount due.

Missed credit card payments are generally added to your credit report when the payment is more than 30 days late. This same entry is updated if your payment is 60 days late, and then 90 days. It is important to know what your specific credit card issuer’s policies are, so you can know what to expect.

Keep in mind that one late payment among years of on-time payments is far less serious than a late payment and limited credit history.

When Is a Credit Card Payment Considered Late?

As far as credit card companies are concerned, the payment is considered late if it’s submitted after the cutoff period, which varies depending on the lender. Sometimes it’s 5 p.m. on a business day while for others it’s 8 p.m. or 11:59 p.m. Also be aware of when a late fee will be charged. Generally speaking, a late fee is issued if payment is received after the credit card issuer’s cutoff time.

30 Days Past Due

Late credit card payments usually aren’t reported to the credit bureau until after 30 days. In other words, if you make a payment after the due date but within this initial 30-day period, it won’t show up on your credit report, but you may have to pay a late fee.

60 Days Past Due

If your payment is more than 60 days late, the 30-day entry on your credit report is updated and your card’s interest rate could increase. If it increases and by how much depends on your card’s terms.

How Late Can You Be on a Car Payment?

Typically, the grace period on auto loans is 10 days, but this depends on the lender. The grace period your lender allows should be listed under the terms and conditions of your loan. This is where you’ll also find the details of the loan, including your loan balance, your interest rate, the term of the loan and the fees associated with a late or missed payment.

If you can afford to pay but simply forgot, you’ll want to pay it as soon as possible. But if you feel you can’t afford the car payment, you should get in touch with your lender and see if they would be willing to renegotiate the terms of the loan.

Deferring Car Payments

You can also look into deferring your car payment if you don’t have the funds now but you expect to later. A deferment essentially means you’re changing your due date by postponing the date of your next payment. Deferments usually don’t negatively affect your credit score.

What If I’m Late on Paying My Rent or Mortgage?

If you’re a few days late paying your rent, usually you shouldn’t have to worry about this affecting your credit score. If you know your landlord, chances are they’ll say something if you continue to submit late payments. If you’re paying a property management company, they likely won’t be as lenient on late payments. Our best advice is to pay your rent within the week it’s due.

Mortgage lenders typically report late payments to credit bureaus and usually have different grace periods. Paying within seven days should help you avoid decreasing credit scores.

One of the best ways to stay on top of your mortgage or rent payment is to set up a monthly reminder for a few days before the first of the month or, if possible, set up an automatic payment. Because your rent or mortgage payment is the same each month, it should be easy to calculate it into your personal finances.

Can a Late Credit Card Payment Made Under 30 Days Still Affect My Score?

If you make a credit card payment within the 30-day period, it generally should not be reported negatively or have any effect on your credit score. Beyond that time, however, there is a possibility your credit score could be affected. Make sure you know the terms of your credit card however, terms can vary and you don’t want any surprises.

If it turns out your late payment has been reported, know that its impact on your score generally diminishes with time, especially if it’s an isolated event. Other on-time payments can help counter the negative effects of late payments. And, as with almost any other mistake, the sooner you realize you’ve made it and try to fix it, the less likely it is to turn into a big problem.

Late Fees vs. Overdue Payments

Late fees are essentially fees charged by lenders to borrowers if a payment is received after its due date. So, if your payment is sent late—or is not the minimum payment or above—you could be charged a late fee.

Most credit card payments are due within a minimum of 21 days after the billing cycle ends, but remember, the grace period is usually only 30 days, so you’ll want to pay them off as soon as possible. Credit card late fees vary depending on your lender and requirements under the CFPB, but the late fee amount can’t be more than the minimum payment. For example, if your minimum payment is $35, your late fee won’t be higher than that.

An overdue payment, however, is a payment that was not paid by the due date. If you miss a due date, you will see the minimum balance plus the overdue payment on your next billing cycle. The overdue payment may be the full amount or a partial amount, such as if you paid part of your minimum but not all of it.

Removing Late Payments From Your Credit History

If there’s an error on your credit history, such as if a car payment is marked late but it actually wasn’t and you have proof, you can challenge it with the lender. The process involves explaining exactly what happened and asking that the error be fixed. Technically, the lender or servicer has 30 business days to respond to the error. If you don’t hear from them within about 45 days, follow up with them.

If a late payment ding on your credit report is accurate, you can still contact the lender and dispute it, especially if you’ve been diligent about paying your bills on time. The lender can provide what’s called a goodwill adjustment, which is when the lender essentially forgives your late fee.

As part of this process, you may be asked to explain the circumstances surrounding the reasons for your payment being submitted late. For example, maybe you went on vacation and forgot or you had to pay a large unexpected cost, such as medical fees, and you couldn’t afford the payment that month.

The lender may offer you a chance to enroll in automatic payments to lessen the chances of a late payment happening again.

How Long Does It Take for a Missed Payment to Come Off My Credit Report?

Unfortunately, if there’s a missed payment or a negative item on your credit history and you’re not able to have it removed, it can stay on there for seven years.

Keep in mind that if the incident occurred five years ago and you’re applying for a loan, it will have less effect than if it occurred last week. The more time that passes after the missed payment occurs, the better. Why? Because credit scores are based on recent financial behavior, so if you only miss one payment and not multiples, eventually your credit score takes your frequent on-time payments into account.

How to Prevent Late Payments in the Future

It’s hard to keep track of everything—grocery lists, kids’ schedules, work to-do lists and, of course, bill due dates—but there are ways to manage your personal finances better to ensure you never miss a payment.

  • Go paperless. Going paperless may increase the likelihood you notice when a bill comes through each month instead of being lost in piles of other mail.
  • Set up reminders. Banks sometimes offer text and email reminders that tell you when a bill, such as a car payment or credit card payment, is coming up. You can also set these up yourself to recur each month on your personal digital calendar.
  • Enroll in automatic payments. Automatic payments ensure your car payment or other loan payment is made on time. Just make sure the funds are available in your account on the day it’s due to be withdrawn to avoid potential overdraw fees.

Keep an eye on your credit report and past late payments when you sign up for Credit.com’s Credit Report Card. It gives you a letter grade in each of the five key factors of your credit.

The post How Late Can You Be on a Car Payment, Mortgage or Other Bill? appeared first on Credit.com.

Source: credit.com